Qualitative Research

The intent of qualitative research is to understand a particular social situation, role, group, or interaction (Locke,Spiduso&Silverman,1987 in Creswell,1994)

Qualitative research is an investigative process where the researcher gradually makes sense of a social phenomenon by contrasting, comparing, cataloguing and classifying the object of study(Miles &Humberman, 1984 in Creswell, 1994)  

Qualitative research is a paradigm in social science which includes anthropology, education,

 Economy, political science management, psychology and communication.

The goal of the scientific activities is to give explanations and precise predictions for the

 Human behaviors (Marom, 2001)

   Research intends to explore phenomenon in order to enrich the humane knowledge and as so, we call it science research.

 It is important to define what is the meaning of science research?

  1. The goal of a science research is the widening of the human knowledge and understanding of processes in nature and in human world.

Although there is an academic freedom, research that deal with people, has to comply with

 Moral limitations on the way we manage it, in order to protect the rights of the people

 Involved in the research, directly or indirectly, meaning the researchers have to be cautious

 As far as research impact on societies. (Ethical rule of scientific research in

 Israel)(Friedman, 2005)

  1. Research means to develop and find new ideas and knowledge that help us to understand different processes in better way than we understood it before. (Yezraeli,—–).
  2. Science mean all knowledge collected by means of scientific methodology (Nachmias&Nachmias,1996)

Definition and principal features of Qualitative Research

Definition

  1. Qualitative research is a naturalistic, which consider people as its ultimate goal.

The researcher in qualitative research has to understand, and to interpret the human behavior so he /she has to document all the data collected.(Yezraeli).

  1. Qualitative study defined as an inquiry process of understanding a social or human problem based on building a holistic picture by words, detailed views of informants, and conducted in a natural setting. (Creswell, 1994)

Principal features

  1. The qualitative paradigm is a naturalistic approach (Lincolen &Guba ,1985 in Creswell,1994);Interpretative approach(Smith,1985 in Creswell,1994).
  2. According to the qualitative approach, reality constructed by the individuals involved in

The research.

  1. In qualitative approach multiple realities exist in any given research situation: the

Researcher and individuals whom he or she investigates.

Therefore, the researcher needs to report faithfully these realities relying on voice and

Interpretations of informants.

  1. In qualitative study, researchers interact with those they investigate and minimize the

Distance between him/herself and the people they study.

  1. In qualitative approach, the researcher admits the value- laden nature of the study and

Reports his or her values and biases.

  1. The researcher's language in qualitative research is first person or personal.
  2. In the qualitative research the inductive logic prevail and categories emerge from

Informants rather than identified a priori by the researcher. (Creswell, 1994) 

  1. The qualitative research derive its dada from natural settings, and the researcher, he or

 She is the researches principal instrument. He uses different tools like note book, camera tape recorder and video camera. The researcher as the researches instrument

 Determines the research quality by his or her sensitivity openness and interpretation

 Ability.

  1. The qualitative research is descriptive one whose data collected by tapes and cameras

Moreover, its out- comes are written as transcript of interviews, field notes and pictures.

  1. In qualitative study researchers interested in processes more than out comes, means

They interested how things happened on reality like negotiation

  1. Qualitative researchers tend to analyze their data in inductive way. They do not try to

 Approve or disapprove hypotheses they wrote at the beginning, but they build their

 Conclusions according to the data accumulated, and construct their theory systematically

 On the base of testimonies and evidences, which collected in a dynamic process of building

Grounding theory.

  1. The qualitative approach attach consideration to the meaning of the data given by the

 Investigators. They want to understand how people think, in what they believe, what are

 Their preferences, so they can understand internal processes, which are not visible to

 spectators.(Bogdan& Biklen, 1982 in Sabar,1990)

  1. Qualitative evaluation tend to rely on unstandardized interviews and on observations,

 And their analysis and reporting is verbally and interpretative (Friedman,2005 )

  1. Qualitative research involves fieldwork. The researcher goes physically to the people,

 Setting, site, or institution to observe or record behavior in its natural setting.(Merriam,

1988 in Creswell, 1994)

  1. Qualitative approach refers to the meanings, concepts, definitions, characteristics, symbols and descriptions of things.
  2. Qualitative research provide measures that can capture things that cannot be

 Meaningfully expressed by numbers (Berg,1995)

   The research question

The qualitative researcher starts his /her research from a specific point with tentative

 research questions that should be defined during the research process.

Tentative questions could be, according to Guba &Lencoln( 1981) in Sabar (1990):

  1. Conceptual question: a question that stem from ambiguous situation or a logical one.

An example could be a situation after unsuccessful plan, which cause to define a new research question.

  1. An action question: a question that stem from a necessity to choose between two

 Alternatives.  An example: to choose between a formative or summative assessment

  1. According to creswell(1994), qualitative researcher use the model of grand tour question

 Followed by sub questions. Questions that employ appropriate qualitative language.

Literature review and use of theory

After developing an idea for the research, one should examine how others have thought about and researched the topic.

The next step is to visit the library to start literature review and to think about

 Topics related to your research question.(Berg,1995)

Researchers use literature to present results of similar studies, to relate the

Present study to ongoing dialogue in the literature, and to provide a

Framework for comparing the results of the present study with other studies

 (Creswell, 1994)

Writing a theory in qualitative research is difficult because there is no standard

 Terminology about placement.

The term (theory or pattern), the researcher uses vary according to the

Research design.

All qualitative studies employ an inductive mode of development and therefor

The placement of theory tends to be toward the end of the study.

Creswell (1994) suggests using the following format in using qualitative theory:

  1. use it inductively so that it does not become something to test, but to

 Develop and shape through the process of research.

  1. Create a visual model of the theory as it emerges.
  2. When used at the end of the study, compare it with other theories.

 

The research design and boundaries

The design for a research project is the plan for how the study will be conducted.

In making a study, the researcher must decide whether to use one data- collection strategy or combine several strategies (Data triangulation)

 The researcher has to decide, will he undertake the study alone or with assistance of others

 To consider whether the study will be framed by one theory or by several related theories.

How much will the project cost in time and money and how much he/she can actually

 Afford?

The researcher has to decide what population will best serve the study purpose and how

 The data will be organized and analyzed. (Berg, 1995)

Researchers use definitions, delimitation and limitation, and statements about significance to place boundaries on their study plan.

Researchers need to define terms that may not be understood outside the field of study.

The terms should be defined at the first instance they appear in the research plan.

The terms defined tentatively because the meanings of the words will emerge from the informants.

 Finally, the study's significance should describe the importance of it for selected audiences

(Creswell, 1994).

The research maybe extended or restricted according to the research problem.

According to Hymes(1978) in Sabar(1990),there are three kinds of ethnographic research

Which define its extent.

  1. Comprehensive research: It is a research that intend to document a way of life, variety of

 Traditions, positions, opinions and so on.

For example investigating unknown tribes.

  1. Topic oriented research: Exploring some aspects of the way of life in a family, or the way

Decisions taken in a school.

  1. Hypothesis oriented research: here the explored problem is a specific hypothesis or issue.

Guba (1978) in Sabar(1990)talks about four reasons who define the research boundaries as

Follows: 1. The research question (problem): the research boundaries extend according to

 The problem definition.

  1. The reasons who caused the research.
  2. Looking for solution serving the researcher conceptions. The process of looking for

Possible resolutions define and restrict the study range.

  1. The definition of the possible out comes

 

Data collection

Creswell (1998) in shkedi(2003) describe the data collection as related actions who intend to collect valuable information in order to answer developing research questions  

How qualitative data organized depends in part, upon what they look like.

If they are in textual form, such as field notes, or could be made in textual form

Like transcriptions of a tape –recorded interviews, they may organized in one

 Manner.

However, if they are video films, photographs or drawn materials, they will

Need different form of organization and analysis. (Berg, 1995)

According to Sabar(1990), there are two principal stages in collecting data in a

 Qualitative research: 1. an openness stage in which the researcher found in

 The research setting, observing, listening, taking part and behave like one of

The inquired group.

In this stage, the researcher is open to receive plenty of different information.

  1. In the second stage, the researcher moves from openness to focus in issues

Emerged during the first stage.

In the second stage, the researcher uses variety of collecting data tools such

 Observations and interviews.

The data are crude materials for analyzing.

According to Goetz & compte(1984) in Sabar(1990) ,there are three sorts of

Information:1. Base information, which include sociological, psychological,

 Cultural, demographical and physical of the research setting and the

 Investigated context.

These are information, which could help in evaluating the impact of specific

 Treatment or for forming parameters, which could help in the generalization

 Capability.  

  1. Process information: these are information that reflect what is going during

 The implementation of a plan and how they perceived by thy people who took

 Part in it.

  1. Valuable information: These are information about the values of the

Investigated people, the people who running the plan, and policy makers.

In addition, how these values affect the investigated phenomena.

Collection data principles

Creswell (1998) in shkedi(2003) describe the data collection as related actions who intend to

 Collect valuable information in order to answer developing research questions  

 The human being as a research tool: Lincoln&Guba(1985) in shkedi(2003)argue that

 The human being is the best instrument for data collection, because of his ability to understand concepts and to connect between fractions and make them a new holistic

Phenomena.

The human being has the ability, at the same time, and understand implicit and explicit

 Data.

The researcher in a qualitative study is a part of the research and he/she involved in the

 Research as participant observer, in- depth interviewer and as a guide in the research group.

 

 

Data collection according to different qualitative strategies

Shkedi (2003) says that to understand the data collection process in qualitative research,

 There is a need to check and examine the two traditional qualitative dada collection

 Methods, the phenomenological and ethnological approaches.

Phenomenology

The Phenomenon is the object, which phenomenologists explore. Phenomenologists use

The construct "phenomenon" to portray the real understanding of real events exist in our

 World.

Phenomenon is an event that objects experienced. When talking about a phenomenon, we

 Talk and express issues like conceptions, memories and cognitions (Creswell, 1998 in Shkedi,

2003).

In phenomenon studies, the researchers focus in understanding how people understand

Meanings and processes (Maykut&Morehouse, 1994 in Shkedi ,2003).

In phenomenological research, the collecting data process focuses in in-depth interviews

And collecting diaries.

The researchers collect the data from the investigated people whom experienced the

Explored phenomena. They intend to study the meaning of the experienced phenomenon

 From the people themselves (Creswell, 1998 in Shkedi, 2003)

 

Ethnography

Ethnography is a process of describing and interpreting cultures. Instead of studying people,

 Ethnography is a process of learning from people.

Researchers choose the ethnographic approach when they want to study the behavior of

Group with common culture (Sparadley, 1997 in Shkedi ,2003).

Ethnography is a study of culture or social group (or person from social group) via

Observations and prolonged stay of the researcher in the research setting.

The ethnographer listening and taping the sound of the informant in intention to create a

Profile of the explored culture.

Data collection methods

There are two types of data collecting tools: interviews and Observations (Shkedi, 2003)

The concept "interview" compass a wide range of practices. From one side there are the

 Highly constructed interviews, which use for research surveys.

These are designed strictly interviews with standardized closed questions. This type of

 Formal interviews is an inevitable in order to insure uniformity.

In the other side, there are the open interviews (in- depth interview), which look like an

 Open conversations (ibid).

Interviews

There are formal and informal interviews. Informal interviews are primary conversations, which helps the researcher to receive a general idea and plan his/her formal interview (Freidman,2005) 

  1. The open (in- depth) interview: The objective of the in-depth interview is to understand

 The meaning people give to their experiences. This kind of interviews gives accessibility to the cultural context of the people behavior, and therefore help researchers to understand

The meaning of that behavior (Seidman, 1991 in Shkedi , 2003 ). This kind of open (in- depth)

 Interview looks more like a conversation than a constructed interview.

In the open interview, the researchers focus in general topics in order to help the

 Informants to expose their tale meaning and to reveal their opinions and positions.

 In this kind of interviews the interviewers respect the way the informants build their

Answers and do not interfere in the interviewees intentions (Seidman, 1991 in Shkedi ,

 2003)

In this kind of interviews, the interviewers must develop, adapt and generate questions and

 Follow up probes appropriate to given situation and the central purpose of the

 Investigation (Berg, 1995)

  1. The standardized interview: Uses structured questions, which the investigated has to

Answer.

There is a need here to ask each interviewee the same question with the same stimulus, so

The responses to the questions will be comparable (Babbie, 1983 in Berg, 1995).

The researchers who use this kind of interviews assume that the questions in their

Interviews are sufficiently comprehensive to elicit from the subjects all the needed

Information (Berg, 1995).

According to Freidman (2005), the questions in the standardized interviews are prepared in

 Advance, and there are little chances the conversation could slide beyond the planed

 Interview. 

  1. The semi- standardized: In the semi-standardized interviews, the researcher uses

Implementing questions for his predetermined questions.

That mean the interviewers allowed to probe for beyond the answers to their prepared and

Standardized questions.

                                                                                Observations

According to Sabar(1990),the observation is the principal tool for gathering information in

The qualitative research.

The observations could be open in whom the researcher could took impression from all the

Objects in the research setting.

The researcher starts, generally, in open observations and later, after deciding upon his/her

 Central investigated issue he/she moves to focused observation.

It is important to emphasize that the open observations are expensive in comparison with

 Interviews.

Sabar(ibid), says that there are many types of observation, whom we may classify according

To the involvement of the researcher in the research process. It changes from external

Observer, not taking part via all the stages tell full involvement.  

  1. Participant observation: In this case, the researcher is a full part of the investigated

Population, taking part in all its daily activities, writes things close to their occurrence in the

 Same words used by the investigated people (ibid).

One of the principal advantages of participant observation is the possibility to feel the real

 Daily lives. Probably, researcher can perceive authentic information when he/she

Stays and be involved directly and personally in the investigated people daily lives.

The potential for misunderstanding and inaccuracy rise in observations when the researcher

 Stay physically faraway and socially from the investigated people.

Participation and involvement in researched settings intensify the possibility of direct access

To what people thought and doing from many point of view (Mason, 1996 in Shkedi ,2003)

  1. Involved observation: This kind of observations used when the researcher cannot stay

 for long time in the investigated surroundings.

Involved observation means highly involvement but without long presence in the studied setting.

  1. Nonparticipant observation: In nonparticipant, the data collection done with minimum

Contact with the participants.

In this case, the researcher has to be capable to make sensitive and precise watching.

In this kind of observations, there is no interrelations between the researcher and the

 Investigated people, but his/her presence makes nonverbal relation system (Sabar, 1990)

The implementing interview: Shkedi( 2003) says that this kind of interview is useful after

 Observations. There are two ways to use implementing interview based on protocols of

 Observations.

  1. To present the protocol of the observation (or the video film) to the informants and ask

 them to explain their point of view about what happened.

The week point of this method is the long time it needs.

  1. Another efficient, useful, saving and focused way of using this type of interview is to

 Choose some parts of the observation protocol and present them to the informants during

 The implementing interview. This process needs preparation ahead of the interview.

The interviewers present the relevant parts and ask for explanations.   

Methods of documenting observations

In an open observation, the researcher has to documents what happens in the research

 Setting, to describe persons, objects, events, activities, conversations and behaviors.

(Observation's protocol)

The success of the qualitative research depends in the detailed, precision and richness

 Of the field notes.

In the observations protocol, the researcher has to write in first person language and

Everything seen and heard.

The field notes include two sorts of data: 1. Descriptive data, which gives verbal picture of

The place, people, activities and conversations (The protocols)

  1. Reflective data: these are the researcher's thoughts, comments, concepts and focus of

 Interests (field notes).

Data Analyzing

Lofland & lofland (1984) in Berg( 1995) suggest that the first step and the foremost in the

Analyzing process is the establishment of some kind of filing system.

By filing, they mean a physical means of maintaining and indexing coded classifications.

They add, that filing involve placing materials into boxes file cabinets, envelops or floppy

 Disks.

The purpose of filing system is to create a mean that ease the access to the filed data.

In filing, the researcher has to look for similarities in the data.

Typically, a systematic indexing process means that the researcher set up several sheets of

Paper with major topics of interest and under them subtopics (ibid)

After the interviews, the researcher has to examine potential patterns to see what findings

 Emerge from the collected data, such as grounded findings, whom are the most interesting

 Results obtained during the research (Glaser&Strauss, 1967 in Berg, 1995)

 

 

                                                                                                   

     Data interpretation

Sabar (1990) says there are two methods to interpret ate data.

  1. Interpretation during the data collection. This method is used during the data collection and finishes with its completion.

Experienced researchers use this method.

  1. The principal part of the data collection done before the analysis. Researchers prefer this method because they fear that the analysis during the collection process may affect the validity and reliability of the data.

She says it is not preferable to do all the analysis only after the data collection, because the paradigm strength is field analysis .

She adds that the researcher has to adapt the field analysis, because without doing that he/she may find that the data is not essential enough to start an analysis process.

The researcher has to accomplish the formal analysis after the data collection, because it is

 Impossible to do continuous analysis without knowing the theories related to constructs

 That emerge during the research process, and this cannot be done in the setting itself.

According to Goetz&Compt(1984) in Sabar (1990) there are 5 strategies for data analysis :

  1. Analytic induction: Include: a.developing primary explanation for specific phenomena

And defining it according to small number of events.

  1. collecting data to establish the primary explanation .
  2. adding new information which not fitting to the primary explanation and designing it to

 include additional events.

d.looking for events which not appropriate to the explanation.

  1. redefining and widening the explanation in order generalize the theory.
  2. Ongoing comparison
  3. A. collecting and analyzing data
  4. analyzing data in order to find topics, returning events, behavior styles or activities

 appropriate to create the research focus.

  1. collecting another new data from many events.
  2. delineating the information in order to create theory and looking for new data.
  3. widening the theory in order to present processes and connections.

 

  1. Topologic Analysis

The researcher, classifying the data to categories or topics and subtopics, and using them

Analyzing or for classifying others and for examining their frequencies.

  1. The quantitative method

Researchers use this method to validate the research categories.

  1. Using standardized protocols and observations.

Content analysis as analyzing data technique

Sabar(1990) defines the content analysis as research technique for validated  systematic

Conclusions which researchers can repeat.

There is an understanding between researchers upon number of content analysis features

As follows:

  1. The content analyzing process directed by articulated rules in order to minimize the

Researcher subjectivity.

There is a need to establish rules, analysis procedure, analysis categories in order to allow

 Others to repeat the process and achieve the same conclusion.

  1. Systematic analysis process: according to this method they build collection of analysis

 categories which according to them they systematically accept or reject categories.

  1. The analysis deals with the content in two interpretation levels.
  2. primary interpretation level in which the researcher analyzing the direct and explicit

Collected contents, drawing up categories for classifying, choosing analysis units and draw conclusions.

  1. In the second interpretation level, the researcher can rely on his own understanding and

 Intuitive to explain the received conclusions.

In this interpretative level, the researcher uses his subjective notes about the investigated

Information.

  1. The goal of the analysis process is to achieve a general explanation which means that his

 /her explanation relates to existing theories or has to build a basis for a new theory.

  1. quantifying information

There is an argument between the researchers upon this feature.

There are some who support quantifying and others who reject it.

Although, quantification can lead to the anticipated accuracy, but it may cause a loss of the

 Truth if do not do deep analysis.

The above five feature of the content analysis show that it is a useful tool (Sabar, 1990)

Designing categories for content analyzing

The content analyzing process is a process of looking for important prominent components

 That repeated themselves in the collected information.

The researcher chooses categories according to the research question. A starting point for

Formulation categories is disputed issues or issues causing concern (Guba, 1978 in Sabar, 1990)

When categories emerges from the data itself, it means that there a need to look for

Systematic and repetition.

At beginning emerge the principal categories with frequent repetition and after wards,

 Emerge Important Categories even with less repetition.

The reliability of the categories checked according to the following discerns:

  1. The categories have to reflect the research goals, and their last formulation has to contain

Concepts definition according to the research questions

  1. The categories have to be well defined in order to contain the hall collected information.
  2. They have to be defined unequivocally so that every piece of information that can be

 Fitted to one category only.

  1. They have to be independent from each other so that any piece of information that

 Classified to one category does not influence the classification of other information pieces.

  1. The categories system has to be reliable internally and externally.

  Means, that internally there has to be consistency in every category, and externally the

Categories system have create complete and clear picture.

  1. The categories have to be reconstructed so that any other experienced researcher could

Confirm that the categories are meaningful for the research data(Sabar, 1990)

Krippendorff (1980) in Sabar(ibid)says that most of the content analysis uses the following

methods:

  1. The analysis units defined according to physical dimensions like books, chapters, articles, and television programs.
  2. According to social dimensions like words, sentences, titles and so on.
  3. According to events, activities, and concepts which related to the content directly.
  4. Units which are sentences from the analyzed content.
  5. Topics Defined according to their contents.

Data analysis and outcomes presentation

The goal of analysis process is to: 1. Present directions, models or important and unique

Relations in the researched entity (reality).

  1. To relate the directions and the relation that emerged from the analysis to other theories

Or to build new theories (ibid).

 

Validity and reliability of the qualitative research

The authenticity of the scientific research depends on its validity, reliability and objectivity.

The criticism against the qualitative research directed to the fact that they cannot withstand in validity and reliability criterion(Sabar,1990).

Validity

Validity is defined as suitability of the scientific descriptions and explanations to the researched phenomenon.

This suitability depends on two criterions:

  1. Internal validity which means, are the researchers examining what they intended to check? In another wards what is the suitability between the collected data and the researched phenomenon?

The internal validity examining to what extent the explanations given by the researcher are correct according to the researched context.

Moreover, are the categories representing the studied phenomenon?

  1. External validity refers to what extent the research hypotheses are feasible in other settings.(ibid)

Reliability

Reliability means to what extent, the usage of the same method and tools, in another research gives equal results?(ibid)

 

 

External reliability

External reliability means that repetition of the same study by another researcher gives the same results or equal result(ibid).

In qualitative research impossible to expect that other researchers will receive, even in

 Equal situations, exactly the results of any another research (Merrick, 1999 in Shkedi 2003)

Researchers in qualitative research can check their personal reliability via formal and explicit

Stages of collecting and analyzing their data. This they can do on the base of the following

 Three conditions:  1. creating a data bank which available for others to examine the

 resources on which the research was based.

  1. Reserving the analysis documents: this gives other researchers the possibility to repeat

the analysis process in order to examine the research reliability.

In this way, researchers, expose their analysis to other colleagues in order to check it and

 give them feedback on the research reliability. 

The analysis process documenting is vital not only for examining what happened, but for

 Advancing other analyses.(Pidegton, 1996 in Skedi,2003)

  1. Presenting chain of evidences in the final report: The report has to contain enough

Citations related to relevant issues.

The report has to indicate the circumstances in which the testimonies were collected and to

Show that the collected data is connected reasonably to the research questions.

Research in collaboration with other researchers or using experienced assistants is vital or

 Even necessary if we want to achieve high reliability (Jorgensen, 1989 in Shkedi, 2003) 

Sabar(1990) talks about the importance of choosing reliable  informants for high reliability.

 

Generalization in qualitative approach

One of the big accepted criticisms on the qualitative research, even among its proponents, is

 That it is very difficult to generalize its outcomes on other populations or other settings

Except those whom were investigated.

There are researchers, who believe that it is impossible to generalize qualitative outcomes,

 And see that this is its limitation (Firestone, 1993 in Shkedi, 2003).

In the focus of the argument for generalization is the ability to duplicate the research

 Outcomes to other populations or contexts.

It is obvious that many of the qualitative approach characteristics are not appropriate for

 generalization as it accepted in the traditional quantitative research (Schofield, 1989 in Shkedi, 2003).

Strauss &Corbin (1990) in Shkedi( 2003) argue that one of the frequent criticisms against the

 Qualitative research, from quantitative researchers, is wrong, because the norms of the

 Quantitative research is not implementable in the qualitative approach.

Their criticism is that the collecting qualitative data, process produce information that

Cannot allow comparable, because not all the investigated were asked the same questions.

Stake (1995) in Shkedi (2003) suggests learning the uniqueness as a way for achieving generalization ability.

Simons (1996)in Shkedi(2003) argues that by learning the uniqueness of the private case, we

 Can learn to understanding the universal.

 

Guba &Lincoln(1989) in Shkedi (2003) reject  totally the advantage of the generalization,

 And suggest abandoning it as the goal of research, and changing it by the concept transferability.

Shkedi(2003) suggests to follow the way of Stake(1995,1978) , and  to prefer the

 Generalization concept.

Three types of generalization

Firestone (1993) in Shkedi(2003) argues that there are three types of generalizations in the qualitative research: A.  generalization from one case to another.

  1. Generalization according to a theory
  2. Generalization from a sample to population
  3. Generalization from one case to another

Generalization from one case to another is like a dialogue between the analysis of specific case and many other cases.

This process allow to anticipate ahead, not predicting, what is going to happen in similar

 Cases (Geertz, 1973 in Shkedi ,2003)

  1. Analytic generalization (theoretical)

By connecting research questions to theories, researchers try to show that their research

 Details help in explaining wide phenomenon.

The analytic generalization is of conclusion base rather than implementation.

  1. Generalization for population

Generalization from limited sample to a bigger population is one of the restrictions of the

Qualitative approach.

The bigger the sample is the bigger the potential for generalization.

If the researcher can show that part of the many investigated cases characteristics similar to

Other cases it can make the generalization more confident.

To considerate the categories contextual of the investigated cases, means their

 Characteristics context, intensify the research potential to generalize from one case to

   Population.

Means that the research readers can refer to specific characteristics group, but not to cases

As a hall, and find similarity between the investigated and reported cases and the cases they

Try to understand (McClintock et al., 1983 in Shkedi, 2003).

Dissemination

Berg (1995) says research is not for the sake of doing, because doing research alone does

 Not benefit the scientific community or the existing body of knowledge.

Research is not complete until it has been disseminated.

Summary

In this short referat , I gathered and summarized the distinguished features of the Qualitative Research, its methodology Including research question, collecting  data process, analyses and outcomes.

I also mentioned validity, reliability and its problematic generalization.

 

Ethnography

Ethnography is a process or describing and interpreting cultures

 

 

 

 

 

References

  1. Berg,B.L(1995),Qualitative Research Methods for Social Science.Allyn&Bacon
  2. Beyth-Marom,R.(2001),Research Methods in Social science: Research Principals and Types. Tel-Aviv.

 3.Creswell,J.W.(1994),Research Design: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. Sage

 Publications

4.Nachmias, Ch.F.&Nachmias ,D.(1996),Research Methods In The Social Sciences.(3rd  edition) Arnold .

  1. Sabar Ben- Yehoshua,N.(1990),The Qualitative Research . Massada.

6.Shkedi, A.(2003),Words of Meaning: Qualitative Research- Theory and Practice.Ramot

  1. Friedman, I.(2005),Measurement and Evaluation of Social and Educational Programs. Hnrieta Sald Institute.
  2. Yezraeli .A(—-),The full Handbook for Academic Report . WWW.Seminar.co.il

 

References that mentioned in the above sources

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